Культурологічний Вісник

ISSN 2413-2292 (Online), ISSN 2413-2284 (Print)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26661/2413-2284-2019-1-39-08

ПІБ автора(ів)FULL NAME
Жадько Віталій Андрійович, Бідзіля Петро ОмеляновичZhadko Vitaliy, Bidzilya Petro
Розуміння філософії у вченні м. ГайдеггераMental bases of ukrainian people: history and modernity understanding of philosophy in the teachings of m. Heidegger
Філософія являє собою спосіб духовно-практичної життєдіяльності людини, яка свідомо обрала для себе шлях самопізнання, до якого закликає філософія. Для того, аби цей шлях не був проявом властивої людині суб’єктивності, суть якої в некритичному ставленні до своїх дій, вчинків, поглядів, вкрай необхідно вступати в діалог з видатними мислителями, оскільки саме вони глибиною своїх міркувань задають масштаб світоглядних орієнтирів і мотивацій. Тому в даній статті ми обрали розуміння філософії, яке у своїй творчості розвинув філософ №1 ХХ-го століття (експертні рейтингові оцінки) М. Гайдеггер.Philosophy is a way of spiritual and practical life of a person who deliberately chose for himself the path of self-knowledge, to which philosophy calls. In order that this path was not a manifestation of a subjectivity inherent in the man, the essence of which is in the uncritical attitude to his actions, views, it is extremely necessary to engage in dialogue with prominent thinkers, because, namely, they give the scale of ideological orientations and motivations by means of the depth of their own reasons set. Therefore, in this article we have chosen an understanding of philosophy, where a philosopher №1 of the XX-th century (expert rating assessments) M. Heidegger developed in his work.
This article is about a responsible mission, which relies on philosophy and on philosophy teachers. It is due to the fact that, namely, philosophy encourages people to self-knowledge. Moreover, a level that would prove it to the understanding of its, on the one hand, similarities, the identity of the macrocosm as a microcosm, on the other hand, would form an adequate responsible attitude towards nature as well as to other people. Raise to such a level of awareness of its vocation is capable not only self-knowledge, but constant, as possible, communication with prominent thinkers, on the shoulders of which are all the progressive achievements of mankind, from the time of its emergence.
Such understanding of philosophy essence is peculiar to swingeing majority of the prominent thinkers. We chose the position of the ХХ-th century German thinker Martin Heidegger, a depth of penetration in the essence of existence is one of the most deep. He went out that "accordance to pure Existence remains our permanent residence. However it appears rarely enough as special and dominant of behavior by us. Only when it takes place, we first, actually, answer that, with what philosophy deals with, which steps a way to Gospel of being.
Accordance to Gospel of being is the philosophy, however only then, when this accordance comes true, and, namely, for this reason opens up and extends its opening". Only, for this reason "our conversation must go in such way and in such direction, that what philosophy talks about, behaves to us, touches us, exactly in our essence". However, it cautions us from philosophy engaging that would’nt become the matter of "emotions and feelings".
M. Heidegger believes, that only thinking, and not intuitively guessed wisdom itself, "becomes a "philosophy for the first time". Heraclitus and Parmenides have not been philosophers "yet, because" they were in the agreement with the Logos" [74, p. 117]. They became Socrates and Plato, and then Aristotle, who raised its main question: "What is the Gospel of being?" And "How can philosophy by means of thinking be able to approach it?". It is about the doctrine of the first causes, knowing which one can come to meet it, arrange a meeting with it. "The first bases and causes are Gospel of being."
Heidegger gives such an answer to the searching problem of the of the general way in the direction of the unity with Gospel of being which determines the philosophy, starting from the Greek. Here it is: "When answering the question" what is it a philosophy" is philosophizing? When we philosophize? Only then, obviously, when we enter into a conversation with the philosophers. It provides, that we talk to them, that they discuss. This implies that we talk to them about what they are discussing. This talking to each other, in fact, is a language, a language as a dialogue " to which philosophers turn to.
But he rightly notes observes: "One thing is to state and describe the philosophers’ thoughts, and quite another is to talk with them about what they traditionally contemplate and tell." This is the main difficulty. Especially in the sense of philosophy teaching at the universities, because it is quite obviously, that the "thoughts of philosophers" keeping in the memory does not mean that they become a conscious project of life as the teachers themselves, and, moreover, the students.
Deciding the question "What is this – a philosophy," the thinker clearly states: "We find the answer to our question not in the history of the definitions of the philosophy, but in the conversation with what was passed to us as the Gospel of being. The answer to our question is not the break with history, not the negation of the history, but is the assimilation and transformation of what the tradition passes ". Of course, it is not going about the tradition in its Church-Christian sense, but about the tradition of the objective spirit of the history knowledge, joining to which, a person is capable to an objective response to the call of the Gospel of being, to harmoniously adjust its melody as a melody of conformity to one's being , hence, the responsibility.
This is a task for every person who has a desire to become a path of philosophical knowledge. Its performance is hampered by many circumstances. We think, that the hardest is an ordinary person to overcome the "torment of thinking", due to the need to abstract from the habit of identifying the ability to speak with the ability to think not figuratively-associative, but conceptually. "Although we are always and everywhere are in accordance with the Gospel of being, we listen to the call of Genesis rarely. Accordance with Gospel of being remains our permanent residence.
However, it appears only occasionally as a special and embodied set of behavior. Only when this is happening, we first respond to the philosophy that goes the way to the Gospel being. Conformity to the Gospel of being is a philosophy, but then and only then if this correspondence is carried out, and thus reveals and expands its disclosure. "
The gap between the human understanding and the content of the concepts and actions will not be if, as long as possible, it is in the true home of being, for which it has the conceptual home, and not the home of speech, limited only by hasty judgments based on direct perception. After all, not only man reads texts, in this case is going about the texts of eminent thinkers, but also texts read and reform the human soul as a body of knowledge.
філософія, діалог, світогляд, свідомість, мислення.philosophy, dialogue, worldview, consciousness, thinking.
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Для цитування | For citation:
Жадько В.А. Бідзіля П.О. Розуміння філософії у вченні м. Гайдеггера / В.А. Жадько, П.О. Бідзіля // Культурологічний вісник: Науково-теоретичний щорічник Нижньої Наддніпрянщини / Гол. ред. М.А. Лепський; Запорізький національний університет. – Запоріжжя: КСК-Альянс, 2019. Випуск 39. Том 1. C. 57-69.